Voltaire used satire as a means of exploiting flaws in England and philosophical optimism. He targeted religion, war and social pride as well. Voltaire executed the idea of optimism through extreme exaggeration. Candide learns optimism through Pangloss, the castle’s tutor. Through Pangloss, Candide learns a “metaphyisco-theologo-cosmolo-nigology.” His philosophical tenet is that since everything was made for a purpose, everything is necessarily for the best purpose. (Voltaire). Voltaire uses Pangloss’ teachings, mixed with hyperbole, to satirize philosophies such as this. Along with exaggeration, Voltaire also used ironic expression, using affirmation of a subject through negating the opposite of the subject. Voltaire ironically uses euphemisms to enhance the comedy of his satire. Voltaire’s satire has a tendency to be insincere when using euphemistic terms. Many satiric authors will use this tactic to avoid bluntness or offensiveness (Magher). However, Voltaire satiri...
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...urney. Swift inexplicitly points out the human nature problems of our society and greed throughout the land. Greed is human nature, but Swift perceived Europe to have social issues with greed, bringing to light the hidden unhappiness behind a dollar.
Swift and Voltaire’s writing styles comparatively lined up with the use of satire. The political aspect of the turmoil and grief in Europe translated both into Gulliver’s Travels and Candide. Philosopher’s were prevalent in the Enlightenment and criticized through the works of Swift and Voltaire. The irrational of human reason and new thinking caused turmoil within society and Voltaire and Swift brought it to light. While different works, we can see similarities through the writing style of satire, philosophical viewpoints, and human pride and societal issues of the nineteenth century in Gulliver’s Travels and Candide.
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